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Linux Virtual Private Server – Tricks To Increase Its Own Functionality

Posted on : 01-04-2012 | By : jake | In : Linux VPS

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Linux System VPS can be a fantastic option for those who wish to take pleasure in the characteristics provided by web site hosting still wish to stay away from the huge costs. The majority of people that use this kind of web server would like to learn how they would be able to enhance its actual functionality and also responsiveness. A real host similar to this can be somewhat restricted in relation to the device tools and so it would be required for that you obtain the best efficiency intended for managing your main internet server properly. Offered listed here are a number of the suggestions which will help you like more desirable performance from your machine.

Disable Your Computer Services

The most effective ways to improve the efficiency of the Linux System Virtual Private Server would be to eliminate the device expert services that you don’t call for. Even if you do not use the assistance, they might take up useful Computer plus Random access memory some time and would certainly decelerate your current internet server. It could may also increase the opportunity of your current machine obtaining a little bit attacked. Eliminate those who it is not necessary.

Setup Mysql Database The Correct Way

A different way to enhance the functionality as well as attainable RAM would be to configure the correct storage cache dimensions for the purpose of Mysql database. In case your host as an example consumes a lot of space subsequently purchase a small sizing of course, if it wouldn’t deal with large applications you’ll be able to raise the storage cache capacity for optimum success.

Setup Apache Server The Correct Way

For the Linux System Virtual Private Server, configuring Apache the appropriate way is necessary. Confirm the quantity of memory space that is utilized by means of Apache server after which modify often the MinSpareServers and StartServers directives as outlined by your needs. This would allow you to have much more memory space.

Clear The Modules

There’ll always be attributes or even themes enabled from the software systems that include all the machine which might quit essential to you really. Examine the setup records and discover should you have to have the added segments and the characteristics which might be trying out each of the storage space. If you will discover any other features you never ever use and won’t need after that eliminate those. This could take back some sources.

Turn Off The Actual Command Panels

Use your management cells not until needed. If you eliminate all of these manage sections, it might take back lots of place plus sources that can instantaneously raise the effectiveness of one’s host. You could have approximately One hundred twenty MB having to do with free RAM once you eliminate the cpanel. You can always put them to use all over again any time you need all of them via PHP software quickly and even by using a shell prompt command.

Helping the performance of your hosting server is definitely not very challenging as long as you recognize how much space is normally used up in what software programs, windows vps. By disabling anything that you’re not using currently, you will be able to easily increase the performance of one’s vps hosting comparison.
Retrieved from:http://millions-served.com/linux-virtual-private-server-tricks-to-increase-its-own-functionality/

Creating A Home Media & File Server With Ubuntu

Posted on : 01-04-2012 | By : jake | In : Cheap VPS, Linux VPS

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For the past two years, I have used FreeNAS 7.x as a file-server. After the development was bought-out, the home-designed service fell by the wayside. The unfortunate consequence is that all of my data was stored on UFS GPT partitions which is does not have native support by either Windows or Linux kernels. The solution I decided upon was to purchase another 2TB hard-drive to use as a storage buffer to copy UFS data and repartition into EXT4 using Ubuntu 11.10’s terminal with a mount command.

After that hiccup, I set out to setup the best server option for my needs.

This HOWTO will give you the BEST home media and file server out there at a cheap (free) cost. It includes SSH2, Remote Desktop, UPNP/DLNA server, SAMBA Shares (Windows file-sharing), VPN server, and the Transmission bit-torrent server. The final piece of the schema is a new toy: Subsonic. This gives you web-based media streaming to watch your content anywhere via a web-browser.

Whilst Ubuntu may be installed on all sorts of hardware specifications, I recommend that you have no less than a 1GHZ dualcore machine (old AMD’s work great!), 2GB of RAM (I have 4GB), 40GB dedicated hard-drive space for Ubuntu, and an internet connection of decent speed (no old dial-up!). I have an AMD dualcore x64, 4GB of RAM, 40GB hard-drive dedicated to Ubuntu, two 2TB hard-drives for storage, and one 500GB hard-drive just for emergencies if space gets low.

Assumption: this guide assumes that you have had some minor, newbie experiences with Ubuntu or Linux at the least. If you haven’t, install Ubuntu and play around and explore the ecosystem for 10 to 20 minutes before continuing.

Assumption: you are not using this server as a router and are not using a firewall on this server because it is behind a home LAN network. If you use it as a router, take note of ports to open with your firewall script and the firewall rules used in the Remote Desktop section.

Let’s start!
Install Ubuntu 11.10. I recommend this being on its own hard-drive. I used a 40GB hard-drive partitioned with EXT4 at / with 32GB of space. The remaining 8GB was partitioned as SWAP space.

Once Ubuntu is installed, reboot into the system and run Software Update to install all of the latest packages. Reboot once more so that we are working from the latest kernel and software suites going forward.

SSH2:
Setting up SSH is very simple. This will give you console access should you be unable to reach the machine with Remote Desktop or like playing in terminal windows!

Open up Terminal.
Type
sudo su

so that we have root control. The password you used when setting up the Ubuntu user account will work for this.
To install the software package type:
sudo apt-get install ssh

If you’re not worried about security, this is a stopping point as SSH is good to go.
Let’s secure the daemon by editing the configuration. Type:
gedit /etc/ssh/sshd_config

to open up the config file.
Find PermitRootLogin and set it to no
Add a line below that variable and type AllowUsers (username) where (username) represents your Ubuntu account’s username.
Type
restart ssh

Remote Desktop
It’s a simple GUI to enable. The downside is that you must use TightVNC or some other VNC viewer for Windows if that is your OS of choice to Remote from. But if you want to have an RDP compliant server running (meaning want to use Windows native Remote Desktop client to connect to the server), complete the following steps.

Open up Terminal.
Type
sudo su

so that we have root control. The password you used when setting up the Ubuntu user account will work for this.
To install the software package type:
sudo apt-get install xrdp

Forward the external WAN port 3389 to the LAN IP address for the server.
For RDP: Make sure to forward any port to the server’s internal port 3389. I use 3401 external port forwarded to the server’s LAN IP at port 3389.

For Ubuntu’s built-in VNC: Make sure to forward port 5900 to the machine. If you want to use JAVA viewer to access the Remote Desktop, you must also forward 5800.

SAMBA Server
Installing and configuring data-sharing which functions with Windows file-sharing. We will set up a share system whereby all LAN computers can navigate, access, and modify the shares. You may wish to do something further to secure SAMBA if your LAN environment isn’t “home” use.

Open up Terminal.
Type
sudo su

so that we have root control. The password you used when setting up the Ubuntu user account will work for this.
To install the software package type:
sudo apt-get install samba smbfs

Edit the configuration. First,
mv /etc/samba/smb.conf /etc/samba/smb.conf.orig

and then
gedit /etc/samba/smb.conf

[global]
workgroup = HOME #(Set this to your Windows workgroup)
netbios = HOME #(Set this to your Windows workgroup)
security = share
[Shared Drive] #(Set this to the name you want the shared folder to have)
comment = entire shared drive #(Comments about the shared folder)
path = /mnt/storage2/ #(Path to the shared folder or mount-point of harddrive)
read only = no
guest ok = yes
writable = yes
Alternatively, you may want to have this as a share system where usernames and passwords or another form of security is in place. This isn’t hard to do and many tutorials are available, but will not be a part of this “home” guide.

VPN: Set up a PPTP VPN which is supported by Microsoft and Android
Open up Terminal.
Type
sudo su

so that we have root control. The password you used when setting up the Ubuntu user account will work for this.
To install the software package type:
apt-get install pptpd

gedit /etc/pptpd.conf

# TAG: ppp
# Path to the pppd program, default ‘/usr/sbin/pppd’ on Linux
#
#ppp /usr/sbin/pppd
# TAG: option
# Specifies the location of the PPP options file.
# By default PPP looks in ‘/etc/ppp/options’
#
option /etc/ppp/pptpd-options
# TAG: debug
# Turns on (more) debugging to syslog
#
#debug
# TAG: stimeout
# Specifies timeout (in seconds) on starting ctrl connection
#
# stimeout 10
# TAG: noipparam
# Suppress the passing of the client’s IP address to PPP, which is
# done by default otherwise.
#
# noipparam
# TAG: logwtmp
# Use wtmp(5) to record client connections and disconnections.
#
logwtmp
# TAG: bcrelay
# Turns on broadcast relay to clients from interface
#
bcrelay eth0
# TAG: localip
# TAG: remoteip
# Specifies the local and remote IP address ranges.
#
# Any addresses work as long as the local machine takes care of the
# routing. But if you want to use MS-Windows networking, you should
# use IP addresses out of the LAN address space and use the proxyarp
# option in the pppd options file, or run bcrelay.
#
# You can specify single IP addresses seperated by commas or you can
# specify ranges, or both. For example:
#
# 192.168.0.234,192.168.0.245-249,192.168.0.254
#
# IMPORTANT RESTRICTIONS:
#
# 1. No spaces are permitted between commas or within addresses.
#
# 2. If you give more IP addresses than MAX_CONNECTIONS, it will
# start at the beginning of the list and go until it gets
# MAX_CONNECTIONS IPs. Others will be ignored.
#
# 3. No shortcuts in ranges! ie. 234-8 does not mean 234 to 238,
# you must type 234-238 if you mean this.
#
# 4. If you give a single localIP, that’s ok – all local IPs will
# be set to the given one. You MUST still give at least one remote
# IP for each simultaneous client.
#
# (Recommended)
localip 192.168.1.49
remoteip 192.168.0.1-255
# or
#localip 192.168.0.234-238,192.168.0.245
#remoteip 192.168.1.234-238,192.168.1.245
gedit /etc/ppp/chap-secrets

# Secrets for authentication using CHAP
# client server secret IP addresses
username pptpd password *
/etc/init.d/pptpd restart

Create a new document in /etc/init.d/ by doing
touch /etc/init.d/ipv4pptpd

Edit the document with
gedit /etc/init.d/ipv4pptpd

and insert the following text:
#!/bin/sh
### BEGIN INIT INFO
# Provides: IPV4PPTPD
# Required-Start: $remote_fs $syslog
# Required-Stop: $remote_fs $syslog
# Default-Start: 2 3 4 5
# Default-Stop: 0 1 6
# Short-Description: Start daemon at boot time
# Description: Enable service provided by daemon.
### END INIT INFO

#From debiantutorials.com/installing-and-configuring-pptp-vpn-server-on-lenny/
echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j MASQUERADE
Type
update-rc.d ipv4pptpd defaults

Either reboot the machine so that the new routing tables are used, or type
sh /etc/init.d/ipv4pptpd

to start those tables.

uPNP DLNA MEDIA Server: Mediatomb
Open up Terminal.
Type
sudo su

so that we have root control. The password you used when setting up the Ubuntu user account will work for this.
To install the software package type:
sudo apt-get install mediatomb

http://localhost:49152/

Edit the config.xml to set up your own username, disable username requirements, add transcoders, and to enable Playstation3 requirements for playback. This can be done with:
gedit /etc/mediatomb/config.xml

Bittorrent Server: Transmission
Open up Terminal.
Type
sudo su

so that we have root control. The password you used when setting up the Ubuntu user account will work for this.
To install the software package type:
sudo apt-get install transmission-daemon

We cannot modify the settings with this process running. Type
/etc/initi.d/transmission-daemon stop

Modify the settings of the settings.json to fit your needs. Make sure to use the CORRECT paths for your setup. Mine are within a heirarchy of /mnt/torrents/. My customizations of choice are:
{
“alt-speed-down”: 950,
“alt-speed-enabled”: false,
“alt-speed-time-begin”: 1,
“alt-speed-time-day”: 127,
“alt-speed-time-enabled”: true,
“alt-speed-time-end”: 585,
“alt-speed-up”: 1,
“bind-address-ipv4″: “0.0.0.0″,
“bind-address-ipv6″: “::”,
“blocklist-enabled”: true,
“blocklist-url”: “http://www.bluetack.co.uk/config/level1.gz”,
“cache-size-mb”: 2,
“dht-enabled”: true,
“download-dir”: “/mnt/torrents/Downloads/”,
“download-queue-enabled”: true,
“download-queue-size”: 5,
“encryption”: 2,
“idle-seeding-limit”: 5,
“idle-seeding-limit-enabled”: true,
“incomplete-dir”: “/mnt/torrents/Incomplete/”,
“incomplete-dir-enabled”: true,
“lazy-bitfield-enabled”: true,
“lpd-enabled”: false,
“message-level”: 2,
“open-file-limit”: 4,
“peer-congestion-algorithm”: “”,
“peer-limit-global”: 240,
“peer-limit-per-torrent”: 60,
“peer-port”: 51413,
“peer-port-random-high”: 65535,
“peer-port-random-low”: 49152,
“peer-port-random-on-start”: false,
“peer-socket-tos”: “default”,
“pex-enabled”: true,
“port-forwarding-enabled”: true,
“preallocation”: 1,
“prefetch-enabled”: 1,
“proxy”: “”,
“proxy-auth-enabled”: false,
“proxy-auth-password”: “”,
“proxy-auth-username”: “”,
“proxy-enabled”: false,
“proxy-port”: 80,
“proxy-type”: 0,
“queue-stalled-enabled”: true,
“queue-stalled-minutes”: 30,
“ratio-limit”: 0.1000,
“ratio-limit-enabled”: true,
“rename-partial-files”: true,
“rpc-authentication-required”: true,
“rpc-bind-address”: “0.0.0.0″,
“rpc-enabled”: true,
“rpc-password”: “password”,
“rpc-port”: 9091,
“rpc-url”: “/transmission/”,
“rpc-username”: “admin”,
“rpc-whitelist”: “*.*.*.*”,
“rpc-whitelist-enabled”: true,
“scrape-paused-torrents-enabled”: true,
“script-torrent-done-enabled”: false,
“script-torrent-done-filename”: “”,
“seed-queue-enabled”: false,
“seed-queue-size”: 10,
“speed-limit-down”: 500,
“speed-limit-down-enabled”: true,
“speed-limit-up”: 1,
“speed-limit-up-enabled”: true,
“start-added-torrents”: true,
“trash-original-torrent-files”: true,
“umask”: 2,
“upload-slots-per-torrent”: 14,
“utp-enabled”: true,
“watch-dir”: “/mnt/torrents/Autoload/”,
“watch-dir-enabled”: true
}
If you’re pleased with the setup as-is there is no reason to continue onward. If you would like to set up a script to automatically update the blocklists file, let’s keep going. It’s important to note that Transmission doesn’t automatically update and process the blocklist file even though the settings.json has a position for it. Let’s create a script to do it. Here’s mine. Remember to modify the path structure to fit your operation.
#!/bin/sh
# 2012-02-27 Rewrote for Ubuntu
# Orignial for FreeNAS 7.5
# By Derek Gordon (crypted or derekcentrico depending on forums)
PATH=/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin; export PATH;
URL=http://www.bluetack.co.uk/config/level1.gz
cd /var/lib/transmission-daemon/info/
wget http://www.bluetack.co.uk/config/level1.gz
gzip -dfq level1.gz
mv /var/lib/transmission-daemon/info/level1 /var/lib/transmission-daemon/info/blocklists/
rm -rf level1.gz
echo “Blocklist update RAN on `date`” >> “/var/lib/transmission-daemon/info/update-blocklists.log”
Set the above file to chmod +x and execute it in the terminal
sh filename

to update the blocklists. You can set this as a cronjob to run daily if you wish.
Once that’s done, restart transmission.
Access the web GUI at http://localhost:9091

Web-based Media Server
Subsonic streams almost all video and audio files through a flash-player on a web interface. A small donation to the developers allows you to have access to apps for Android and iProducts. This means native streaming to them as well.

Open up Terminal.
Type
sudo su

so that we have root control. The password you used when setting up the Ubuntu user account will work for this.
To install the prerequisite packages, type:
sudo apt-get install openjdk-6-jre lame flac faad vorbis-tools ffmpeg

Subsonic is not part of the repositories for Ubuntu. We must download the latest version at http://www.subsonic.org/pages/download.jsp. Download the version for Ubuntu/Debian. Put this file in your /home/username/ directory. Go to that directory in terminal.
Type
dpkg -i filename

where as of this writing, my filename was titled subsonic4.6.deb so I typed
dpkg -i subsonic4.6.deb

Now, go to http://localhost:4040 and sign in and finish setup via the web interface. Do what it instructs in RED. Click the link to secure the admin account.
Afterward, go to Settings and customize the system to your preferences. Make sure to add the media directories to the player.
If you prefer a barebones media server, I suggest checking out VLC. It takes a lot more work to get up and running and its web-interface isn’t as nifty.
Retrieved from : http://www.howtoforge.com/creating-a-home-media-and-file-server-with-ubuntu

Linux Shared Hosting Account – Why Web Experts Say It Is One Of The Best

Posted on : 31-01-2012 | By : admin | In : Linux VPS

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In this new age of technological innovation, more and more individuals are becoming absorbed in the novel world of on-line business. Making money online delivers a great deal of benefit specifically if you want to handle your own business without even heading out in the luxury of your home. Pretty much, there are a lot of main issues you have to handle prior to establishing a shielded foothold in the world of ecommerce. One of this involves picking the best hosting account for you to manage all your websites. The Linux shared hosting account offers simply the right volume of functions you might just find beneficial in managing your online business.

In general, a world wide web hosting account is the one that manipulates and manages all your dealings on the Internet. It caters all your web sites’ disk capacity, data transfers, visitor boosters and monitoring and also many other relevant deals that are necessary to your awareness and performance on the World Wide Web. Without a world wide web hosting account, it will not be attainable for you to operate all your applications and regulate all your web sites with ease as well as confidence.

A Linux account that provides shared hosting combines all your website accounts into one major system. Because it is shared, you do not need to access all these accounts separately while you troubleshoot and edit your settings to improve your performance online. All you have to do is to log-in into your Linux shared account and pretty much work your way through all the details and necessary monthly records. Consequently, you can work every little thing out without difficulties and delays.

The Linux hosting account has a lot of basic features needed for you to run your site. Here, you are able to watch your sites’ stats such as traffics and many other requisites such as FTPs. You are also furnished spam and virus protections required for your website visitors to conveniently access your sites. Programs such as MySQL, PHP, SGI, Python and a whole lot even more are also offered. Its functionality alone count as one of the main causes why website owners favor Linux as their general website hosting account.

A shared Linux account is flexible as well as simple to handle. You can easily check out your monthly traffic and backups in one sitting. You can basically deal with your server resources without the use of dedicated hosting, or one-on-one method to regulating your websites online.

A secure, reputable and beneficial world wide web hosting account is important to your success online. Thus, you can easily build your Internet empire and be successful in the field of Internet business with the help of the right tools to increase your on-line production.
Retrieved from:http://allforyouhere.com/2012/01/22/linux-shared-hosting-account-why-web-experts-say-it-is-one-of-the-best/

The huge benefits and drawbacks of Linux Hosting

Posted on : 31-01-2012 | By : admin | In : Linux VPS

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One with the popular web hosting service types is Linux hosting. As Linux hosting has many advantages, it really is desirable to a great number of. However, every coin has two sides. In this article Let me discuss the huge benefits and disadvantages of Linux hosting.

Advantages

First, Linux is surely an open source product and thus it does not want the high licensing fees that other operating systems do; you possibly can freely download and then use it without cost. Once the scripting language like PHP, MySQL, or Perl etc. are needed to your website then Linux server hosting is among the most reliable and value effective solution available for you. Unless heavy load of scripting language, this will quit traceable.

Second, Linux platform can sustain high-traffic. Today together with the massive traffic which can hit the net as well as the tariff of hosting, Linux hosting is actual fact probably the greatest preferences that may be around for websites that involve some eminent effective options using design.? Mentionened above previously Linux option is quite definitely adaptable with an assortment of non-native soft wares that can even be made suitable for numerous Windows based software.? Employing different software will usually need work on the server with regards to installing physical drives which were modified for Linux environment.

Third, Linux hosting is much more secure than every other hosting types. With regards to the security facet of Linux hosting, it is found out that it is actually stringent as well as hard for anyone to hack into when compared with other hosting options. The software program it possesses can boost security with a server and additionally give a variety of useful tools within its environment. Linux hosting services find to generally be most adaptable that is utilized for nearly everything.

Disadvantages

Linux hosting seriously isn’t that will work with windows applications along with the coding conversions. It could be a significant issue with websites that happen to be created for windows based application. This is considered to be the main disadvantage.

Though there are several disadvantages of Linux hosting, it is also an excellent type that you choose.
Retrieved from:http://www.hostssh.com/linux-hosting/the-huge-benefits-and-drawbacks-of-linux-hosting.html

Advantage of Linux VPS Hosting Over Windows VPS Hosting

Posted on : 29-01-2012 | By : admin | In : Linux VPS

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If you want to host a website, VPS hosting is the best way to do this because the costs are low compared to other servers as virtual private servers on Windows Server or dedicated servers. It also offers a better approval. VPS Hosting Linux is an open-source software and offers the same benefits as provided for in the function of the virtual private server hosts under Windows.

If you choose virtual private server hosting, you can have your set up and control at low cost. You can also install it, start your own operating system and any software you need on the server. It is a safe and you should not worry about losing your data. If you are not satisfied with shared hosting, you can switch to a virtual private server hosting. The server offers the best dedicated server to a server divided into multiple counter.

Most people are familiar with Windows hosting, because it first came on the market, and administrators are familiar with the process of Windows. On Windows-based hosting is used for Web sites or applications a huge complex that can be easily performed and offers its customers built. The biggest advantage is that Linux has over Windows hosting virtual private server hosting the open-source software, and there is no license for the software, it reduces the cost by a huge margin. If you go with Windows VPS hosting, you have to pay a fee to purchase a license from Microsoft. The price factor is the main reason why many prefer Linux hosting.

Windows programmers prefer to use Windows hosting, because some Windows programs can not work well in a Linux system. Web sites specifically pirates with their viruses and malware, and Microsoft is caught in it. Meanwhile, Linux has no problems with viruses due to its nature free and open source. Both Windows and Linux VPS Hosting is good, but make sure you present the right tools to install all software and restart the operating system properly.

If you have problems you need to reinstall your operating system with Linux from scratch, there are a number of ways to solve them. VPS Hosting Linux comes free with a limited bandwidth and storage space, but you can increase the size later depending on your needs at lower cost. However, it should be noted that unlimited shared hosting, bandwidth and disk space are.

The follow-up time in the well on Linux VPS Hosting Windows Virtual Private Server hosting, because it as open source. You can change the coding to make the program less space in comparison to Windows Virtual Private Server. But if you want to access a remote desktop, it is preferable to opt for Windows.

Retrieved from:http://www.shuhuawang.org/advantage-of-linux-vps-hosting-over-windows-vps-hosting

Using putty to connect to a linux server

Posted on : 29-01-2012 | By : admin | In : Linux VPS

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1. Open your browser and navigate to:

http://the.earth.li/~sgtatham/putty/latest/x86/putty.exe

2. Choose the Save As option and download the file to your Desktop

3. Once the download is complete close your browser window and double click on the putty icon on your desktop to launch

4. Once Putty is launched you will see it will be like the image below

5. In the Host Name (or IP address field) simply enter the hostname of the server you would like to connect to (i.e. kadath.imaging.psu.edu) and click on Open.

6. You will then be prompted for your username and password to the system.

7. Once authentication you will be able to issue commands and can take advantage of X11 forwarding (display forwarding) so you can see items visually on your screen

8. When completed simply exit the shell on the remote server by typing ‘exit’ followed by hitting enter and then click on the X in the top right corner to close putty

Retrieved from:http://help.pop.psu.edu/popnet-help/using-putty-to-connect-to-a-linux-server

The Best Linux Hosting for You

Posted on : 29-01-2012 | By : admin | In : Linux VPS

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Nowadays, we know that almost all industrial sectors in all around the world have been trying to enhance their performance in business through the improvement technology, internet. However, many of them have got some difficulties in gaining the best hosting that will be able to control their website. As we know that website has become the main place where people can promote their business, enhance their profit without opening any other branches in all around the world. Everything can be easily done through the website. So, it can be the best way to bring the company success worldwide.
One of the most common problems that have been faced by almost all people or companies in all around the world is about the website hosting. The hosting is usually needed for enhancing the website performance, so it would be easily found by the search engine. Thus, easier it is found, greater profit that people will get. Now, you do not to worry where to find the best website hosting, even if you need the best Linux hosting for your business, you can check the website Webhostingsmarts.com. Through the website which has been suggested for you, you can easily get the best review about what kind of the best web hosting that you can use.

Retrieved from:http://www.fireemblemwiki.info/the-best-linux-hosting-for-you/

8 Things to do on a New Linux Server

Posted on : 29-01-2012 | By : admin | In : Linux VPS

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Here are some things I do whenever I get a new Linux server (whether it is a VPS or dedicated). Most of the points are security related while the others are just there to make it more convenient to manage. This is by no means a complete list, or the most important of a very long list!

1. Change the Root Password

This is the first thing I do whenever I get a new server or reload one of my VPS. In the case of a dedicated server, the provider will usually generate a random password and send it along the activation email. On a VPS it depends on what control panel you are using, SolusVM usually saves the root password you use in the “Root Password” section of it and uses it whenever you reload a VPS in that SolusVM account.

A good password will contain a combination of numbers, letters, upper and lowercase and even symbols if you want it really difficult to guess. Be careful though, you don’t want to forget the password if anything important is inside ! Websites such as Random.org are great for generating random passwords.
8 Things to do on a New Linux Server
DEC07
2011 LEAVE A COMMENT WRITTEN BY ELYAS KASHFI

Here are some things I do whenever I get a new Linux server (whether it is a VPS or dedicated). Most of the points are security related while the others are just there to make it more convenient to manage. This is by no means a complete list, or the most important of a very long list!

1. Change the Root Password

This is the first thing I do whenever I get a new server or reload one of my VPS. In the case of a dedicated server, the provider will usually generate a random password and send it along the activation email. On a VPS it depends on what control panel you are using, SolusVM usually saves the root password you use in the “Root Password” section of it and uses it whenever you reload a VPS in that SolusVM account.

A good password will contain a combination of numbers, letters, upper and lowercase and even symbols if you want it really difficult to guess. Be careful though, you don’t want to forget the password if anything important is inside ! Websites such as Random.org are great for generating random passwords.

On Linux its quite simple to change your root password just enter:

passwd root

You will then be prompted to enter your new password twice.

2. Add a Non-Root User

It’s good practice not to be root when whatever you need to do does not require root powers. Just about anything non-administrative can be done without root. Everything you need works only with root? No problem, set a non-root user anyways (point 4 explains why). On most Linux distributions this can be done with the adduser (Debian) or useradd (CentOS) command.
adduser user123

useradd user123

Note that depending on the operating system, the command may or may not prompt for a password to be entered for the user. If it doesn’t make sure you set the password for the new user by using the passwd command (like we did in point 1):

passwd user123

3. Check for OS Updates

Checking for updates on Linux is important to ensure you have the latest patched versions of software and most importantly that the Linux kernel is up to date. The good thing about Linux is that most software updates do not require a reboot, kernel updates usually do (unless you are lucky to be using Ksplice ).

On Debian (and other Deb systems such as Ubuntu, don’t forget sudo if required):

apt-get update && apt-get upgrade

On CentOS:

yum update

It might take a while if the distribution installed is not the latest and your connection is not the best out there.

4. Disable SSH Root Login

Remote shell (aka SSH) is the best way to manage your server remotely thanks to it being similar to telnet but encrypted in nature. However, it operates on a standard port (port 22) and as such becomes a target for brute force attacks. The first username they will try to exploit is root since it is most likely to have all the powers they need. It is good to disable root login, but do this ONLY if you are able to login as another user (step 2 above) as well. On Debian and CentOS the steps are the same, edit the file /etc/ssh/sshd_config, look for:

#PermitRootLogin yes

uncomment it (remove the #) and make sure it contains no:

PermitRootLogin no

Restart the SSH server (DO NOT DISCONNECT YET FROM SSH AFTER RESTARTING, depending on distribution it is one of these:

service sshd restart

service ssh restart

/etc/init.d/ssh restart

Now start a new SSH session, try to login as root. Not working? Perfect. Now login as the non-root user created above and enter the following to become root (the password is the root password):

su -

If you are in as root you may close the terminal we were working on previously, otherwise ensure you have edited the correct section of the file.

5. Change the SSH Port

Due to the reasons mentioned above, you may also change the SSH port from its default of 22 to something else. There are some situations when you do not want to change the SSH port, some firewalls are configured for port 22 and will allow connections but disallow if you use some other port (usually corporate firewalls). Once again edit /etc/ssh/sshd_config, this time look for:

Port 22

and change it to something else. It is recommended to use a port in the 49152 – 65535 range to minimize the chances of it being used by some protocol and messing up stuff. Check the following list before changing to a port out of the range mentioned.

6.Set the Timezone

This is optional. I prefer to set my servers’ time zone to my location. Its easier to read the various logs when it is local to your time rather than something like UTC or the location where the server was setup in. On Debian its quite simple, enter the following command and follow the prompt:

dpkg-reconfigure tzdata

On CentOS I’m used to the following, remove the symlink to the current time zone:

rm /etc/localtime

Create a new localtime symlink but point it to a different zone, Bahrain for example, would look like:

ln -s /usr/share/zoneinfo/Asia/Bahrain /etc/localtime

7. Remove Unwanted Software

Not every server I deploy is a web server, yet Apache is running on a freshly reloaded VPS. Not every VPS I use has enough memory to run everything I wish it could . As a result I usually remove stuff I don’t want. What you want to remove is completely dependent on what purpose the server will serve. Assuming you wanted to remove Apache, on Debian (and other Deb) it is:

apt-get remove apache2

On CentOS:

yum remove httpd

8. Change the Message of the Day (MOTD)

This can be purely for fun and is optional. Noticed a message that pops up as soon as you login in Linux (different depending on distro)? That is the message of the day (or motd). For CentOS you edit the /etc/motd file and replace (or add) with whatever you want. On Debian edit /etc/motd.tail.

Retrieved from:http://kashfi.com/2011/12/07/8-things-to-do-on-a-new-linux-server/

Basic Linux server security tips

Posted on : 29-01-2012 | By : admin | In : Linux VPS

Tags: ,

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Run web-based administration interfaces via HTTPS.
Close. Try “don’t run web-based administration interfaces at all, or, if you do, firewall the hell out of them.”
Note that disabling login by setting the login shell to /bin/false prevents only a subset of the attacks handled by this solution.
This is true, however if you aren’t going to mention what those attacks are then you probably don’t need to mention that.
If you don’t have a GPG keypair yet, you’ll have to create one.
What? ssh-keygen?
Force the usage of SSH-2
As far as I know, all the current (noteworthy) distributions do this, so it probably is not worth mentioning.
Running the SSH daemon on a random port requires little effort, for a little security through obscurity.
If you’re going to write a serious article on security, you should not advertise “security through obscurity” as a legitimate form of security. It’s not. Changing port number is fine, but make sure you’re clear about what the benefit really is: fewer break-in attempts, not increased system security.
the port number should be above 1024
That is easily a point of debate. Port numbers over 1024 do not require root privileges to bind to, and are thus more susceptible to port hijacking. I’d recommend choosing a port number below 1024 which does not appear in the nmap-services file.
That said, I’ve listed all the security measures I’ve taken to protect the server running this blog at the time of writing; this setup is good enough for me.
Telling potential attackers exactly what you have done in an attempt to secure your website is a terrible, terrible idea. Part of the idea in security in depth is to slow attackers down and make them have to figure out a way around your defenses. You just eliminated half of the work by telling them exactly how you configured your box.
TL;DR: if you are going to write an article on security, try to have a thorough grasp of the fundamentals rather than copying bits and pieces from articles around the Internet

Retrieved from:http://www.reddit.com/r/linux/comments/n2g2n/basic_linux_server_security_tips/

BEST WEBSITE HOSTING FOR THE LINUX OPERATING SYSTEM

Posted on : 29-01-2012 | By : admin | In : Linux VPS

Tags: ,

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Retrieved from:http://www.wing1korat.com/best-website-hosting-for-the-linux-operating-system.html